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FAQ

Question
What is fertility?
Answer

Fertility is the ability to conceive and give birth to a live baby.

Question
What is infertility?
Answer

Answer Infertility is the inability to conceive and give birth to a live baby. Infertile couple is a couple when the spouses of childbearing age with regular sexual intercourse without contraception for a year and longer have no pregnancy.

Question
What types of infertility may be divided in?
Answer

Primary infertility, when a woman having sexual intercourse has never been pregnant. Secondary infertility is absence of pregnancy after the woman had at least one pregnancy, no matter how it ended (birth, spontaneous abortion, abortion). Also there are male and female infertility.

Question
What causes infertility?
Answer

Unlike usual diseases, infertility refers not to one person, but to a couple. So it’s more accurate to say not about infertility, but about infertile couple. The frequency of infertile couples is about 15-–20%. The most common causes of infertility in women are: the fallopian tube-peritoneal factor, which includes anatomical and functional changes in genital organs after previous inflammatory diseases of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, uterine cervix, sheath, adhesions in the abdominal cavity, the uterine cavity.

    Hormonal factor:
  • abnormal functions of ovaries and pituitary
  • adrenal function abnormality
  • thyroid function abnormality
  • uterine tumor (myoma)
  • endometriosis
  • ovarian tumors
  • infantilism
    Genetic factor:
  • existence of hereditary diseases
  • genetic predisposition to blood coagulation system abnormalities
  • congenital abnormalities of the reproductive organs genesis
    The most common causes of infertility in men are:
  • reduction in spermogram values
  • varicocele
  • urinery tract infections
  • endocrine factor
  • immunological factor
  • sexual and/or ejaculation disfunctions
  • congenital abnormalies

Question
How the causes of female infertility are diagnosed?
Answer

Examination for female infertility includes the following directions:

  • assessment of the nature of the functional changes in ovaries and uterus
  • assessment of the state of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes patency
  • tests for urinary tract infection
  • detection of immunological conflict between husband and wife, examination of the immune system values
  • detection of karyotype, genetic factors
  • examination of the blood coagulability values
Question
How is the hormonal function of the ovaries detected?
Answer

Ultrasonic monitoring of folliculogenesis, as well as hormonal monitoring are the most informative ovarian hormonal function examinations.

Question
What is the basal temperature?
Answer

Basal (or rectal) temperature is measured in the rectum in the morning before getting out of bed. Based on the results obtained, the graph of the basal temperature is plotted. In the middle of the menstrual cycle, the basal temperature, under the influence of progesterone (a yellow body hormone), increases by 0.4 degree Celtigrade (37 degrees and above). Within 12–-14 days it stays at that level. For 1-2 days before the start of the menstruation, it is reduced to 36.6 degrees Centigrade.

Question
Does the increase of basal temperature ensure the onset of ovulation?
Answer

Unfortunately, not always. More than 15% of women find out that when the basal temperature increases they have no ovulation, and vice versa, -– ovulation can occur at a constant basal temperature below 37 degrees Centigrade. Therefore, this method actually is not used in modern conditions.

Question
Is the male sexual potency a proof of his fertility?
Answer

It is not. During an intercourse the male’s seminal fluid enters the female's genital tract. And the fecundating ability (fertility) is detected by the quality of sperm cells.

Question
How is the male examination conducted?
Answer

Primarily, examination of sperm (spermogram) is carried out. In cases of variations from the normal values, consultation by the andrologist is conducted to find out the causes and refer to the appropriate treatment.

Question
How to prepare oneself for sperm collection?
Answer

Under the influence of alcohol, nicotine, unhealthy diet (spicy and fatty foods), overfatigue and stress the semen quality deteriorates significantly. Therefore, for best results of the spermogram, the impact of the above factors should be excluded or minimized.

The obligatory requirement before semen collection is the sexual abstinence, as well as avoidance of hot baths and saunas for 3 days.

Question
What is the intrauterine artificial insemination?
Answer

The intrauterine artificial insemination is the injection of sperm using a special catheter into the uterine cavity. 

The artificial insemination is prescribed in case of some forms of the male and the female endocrine and immunological infertility. The obligatory requirement for this procedure is normal fallopian tube patency. On a day favourable to get pregnant (in a natural cycle or with the hormonal stimulation of ovulation), the female is injected with a catheter in the uterine cavity preliminary prepared husband’s or donor’s sperm.

Question
What are the methods of treatment for male infertility?
Answer

Treatment for male infertility may be conservative (hormonal, anti-inflammatory) or surgical. If the patient fails to overcome infertility by using these methods, the methods of ART (assisted reproductive technology) are applied: IVF, ICSI, TESA, MESA.

Question
What is IVF?
Answer

IVF (in vitro fertilization, fertilization outside the body) is a method of treatment for infertility, in which fertilization of the female oocytes by the male sperm cells occurs outside her body. After fertilization, the obtained embryos are transferred into the cavity of the female uterus, and she carries the pregnancy.

Question
Is it required to check the patency of the fallopian tubes before IVF?
Answer

No. The processes of fertilization, which take place in a female's body in the fallopian tubes, when making IVF, are carried out in special boxes and incubators. IVF program was originally created for women with removed or blocked fallopian tubes.

Question
Что такое ИКСИ?
Answer

ICSI is an option of the female's ovum fertilization during IVF, injection by using special micromanipulators of one sperm cell directly into the cytoplasm of the oocyte. Using this micromanipulation, fertilization occurs.

If as a result of any desease the sperm cell looses the ability to get inside the egg, because of its dense outer shell becomes an invisible obstacle for it, there is a need to apply the ICSI method.

Question
What is the difference between IVF and ICSI?
Answer

IVF is a method of treatment, within which fertilization of the ovum can be performed using the ICSI method. ICSI does not exist without IVF.

Question
What is IMSI?
Answer

IMSI is selection of the sperm cells from the ejaculate at very high magnification for conduction of ICSI.

Question
What are TESA and MESA?
Answer

Both programs are used in cases of azoospermia — the absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate. TESA and MESA are the options of the ICSI program. The difference lies in the “source” of the sperm cells: in TESA, sperm cells required for injection into the egg, are retrieved when puncturing the testis, and MESA — with the use of the epididymis.

Question
When the donor’s sperm is used?
Answer

Sperm donation is used in cases of absolute male infertility or for single women.

Question
How to choose a donor?
Answer

Patients, using description, are able to choose a donor with the desired male appearance data and blood group.

Question
What is the sperm bank?
Answer

The semen bank is a store of frozen sperm portions. Most often it refers to the donor sperm bank. However, men whose activities are connected with risk to life and health, as well as for other reasons willing to preserve samples of their semen, can also make use of services of the sperm bank.

Question
When the donor’s eggs are used?
Answer

In some females infertility is connected with that in their ovary follicles growth and maturation of oocytes do not occur. In this case, oocytes are obtained from a female donor and fertilized with the sperm of the patient’s husband or the donor’s sperm. The obtained embryos are transferred into the patient's uterus, and she carries the pregnancy.

Question
What is AMH?
Answer

AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) is one of the markers of the reproductive system of a female's body that is directly connected with the ovarian reserve and the ability of the ovary to produce eggs. The lower is AMH, the less oocytes the ovary produces.

Question
Does AMH depend on the age?
Answer

Yes. With age, the level of AMH is reduced, especially after 40 years.

Question
Is it possible to increase AMH?
Answer

Unfortunately, in current conditions it’s not possible to substantially influence on the level of AMH. At very low rates of this marker, programs using the donor's oocytes can be offered as well.

Question
What is the “surrogate maternity”?
Answer

The “surrogate maternity” program gives the chance to become moms for females with removed uterus or which have serious deseases in which carrying of the pregnancy is contraindicated. In these cases, when conducting IVF, the egg and sperm of the infertile couple are used. The obtained embryos are transferred into the uterine cavity of the “surrogate mother”. She is during nine months carrying this pregnancy.